Installing Oracle 10g on Linux RHEL

Software How-tos Aug 24, 2007

I have been recently installing Oracle on a RHEL system, so thought I would post an how to, so it will be easier for me or you do it later.

The following procedure is a step-by-step guide (Cookbook) with tips and information for installing Oracle Database 10g on Red Hat Linux.
This guide shows how I installed 10g Database on the Red Hat system:

Downloading Oracle10g Software and Burning Oracle10g CDs

Download Oracle 10g (32-bit and 64-bit) for Linux from OTN to install linux 10g oracle: NOTE: To install a Oracle Database 10g (without RAC) you only need to download the database file ship.db.lnx32.cpio.gz, or 10201_database_linux_x86_64.cpio etc. Compute a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) checksum for the downloaded files and compare the checksum numbers against the numbers posted on OTN's website. For example:
cksum ship.db.lnx32.cpio.gz
Uncompress the downloaded file(s):
gunzip ship.db.lnx32.cpio.gz
Unpack ship.db.lnx32.cpio:
$ cpio -idmv < ship.db.lnx32.cpio
I executed the following command to burn the Disk1 directory on a CD:
# mkisofs -r Disk1 | cdrecord -v dev=0,0,0 speed=20 -
(Drives' speed varies; you can get the dev numbers when you execute cdrecord -scanbus). Note that 10g R2 won't fit on a single CD since it has over 780MB.

Checking Memory and Swap Space

Oracle says that the system must have at least 512MB of RAM and 1GB of swap space or twice the size of RAM. And for systems with more than 2 GB of RAM, the swap space can be between one and two times the size of RAM. You might also want to check out Sizing Swap Space. For test sake I tried to install an Oracle Database 10g (Type: General Purpose Database) on a little PC with 256MB of RAM and 1 GB of swap space. I was able to get a 10g database up and running on this little PC without a problem. To check the size of physical memory, execute:
grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
To check the size of swap space, execute:
grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
You also can add temporary swap space to your system by creating a temporary swap file instead of using a raw device. Here is the procedure:
su - root
dd if=/dev/zero of=tmpswap bs=1k count=900000
chmod 600 tmpswap
mkswap tmpswap
swapon tmpswap
To disable the temporary swap space execute the following commands:
su - root
swapoff tmpswap
rm tmpswap

Checking /tmp Space

According to Oracle's documentation, the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) requires up to 400 MB of free space in the /tmp directory. But OUI checks if /tmp is only greater than 80 MB. To check the space in /tmp, run:
$ df /tmp
If you do not have enough space in the /tmp filesystem, you can temporarily create a tmp directory in another filesystem. Here is how you can do this:
su - root
mkdir /<AnotherFilesystem>/tmp
chown root.root /<AnotherFilesystem>/tmp
chmod 1777 /<AnotherFilesystem>/tmp
export TEMP=/<AnotherFilesystem>           # used by Oracle
export TMPDIR=/<AnotherFilesystem>         # used by Linux programs like the linker "ld"
When you are done with the Oracle installation, shutdown Oracle and remove the temporary /tmp directory:
su - root
rmdir /<AnotherFilesystem>/tmp
unset TEMP
unset TMPDIR

Checking Software Packages (RPMs)

General Before you install an Oracle Database 10g you need to check the system for required RPMs. On my systems I usually install a minimum list of RPMs which usually requires the installation of additional packages for Oracle databases. Always ensure to use the latest RPMs and kernels!

For 10g R2 (32-bit) on RHEL 4 x86, the document Oracle Database Release Notes 10g Release 2 (10.2) for Linux x86 lists the following required package versions or higher:


Also ensure to install the libaio-0.3.96 RPM or a newer version! Otherwise the OUI prerequisite check will fail.
To check the RPMs, run:

  rpm -q binutils compat-db control-center gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc-common gnome-libs \
         libstdc++ libstdc++-devel make pdksh sysstat xscreensaver libaio

10g R2 on RHEL AS 4 (x86)
On my RHEL AS 4 x86 system I had to install the following RPMs and dependencies to meet the software requirements:

   rpm -Uvh gcc-3.4.4-2.i386.rpm \
            gcc-c++-3.4.4-2.i386.rpm \
            libstdc++-devel-3.4.4-2.i386.rpm \
            glibc-devel-2.3.4-2.13.i386.rpm \
            glibc-headers-2.3.4-2.13.i386.rpm \

   rpm -Uvh gnome-libs- \
            compat-db-4.1.25-9.i386.rpm \
            ORBit-0.5.17-14.i386.rpm \
            gtk+-1.2.10-33.i386.rpm \
            imlib-1.9.13-23.i386.rpm \
            libpng10-1.0.16-1.i386.rpm \
            gdk-pixbuf-0.22.0-16.el4.i386.rpm \
            libungif-4.1.3-1.i386.rpm \
            alsa-lib-1.0.6-5.RHEL4.i386.rpm \
            audiofile-0.2.6-1.i386.rpm \

   rpm -Uvh sysstat-5.0.5-1.i386.rpm

   rpm -Uvh libaio-0.3.103-3.i386.rpm

   rpm -Uvh xorg-x11-deprecated-libs-6.8.2-1.EL.13.20.i386.rpm

   rpm -Uvh compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-47.3.i386.rpm

I don't know why the control-center RPM and the xscreensaver RPM are listed as requirements. On my system I did not install these RPMs since I'm against installing desktop stuff on servers. When I installed 10g R2 I did not experience any problems when these RPMs were missing. When you want to install control-center RPM and the xscreensaver, then have fun. The list can be very long with all the dependencies like gnome-desktop, cdrecord etc..

Checking Kernel Parameters

To see all kernel parameters, execute:
su - root
sysctl -a
For Oracle10g, the following kernel parameters have to be set to values greater than or equal to the recommended values which can be changed in the proc filesystem:
shmmax  = 2147483648     (To verify, execute: cat /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax)
shmmni  = 4096           (To verify, execute: cat /proc/sys/kernel/shmmni)
shmall  = 2097152        (To verify, execute: cat /proc/sys/kernel/shmall)   (for 10g R1)
shmmin  = 1              (To verify, execute: ipcs -lm |grep "min seg size")
shmseg  = 10             (It's hardcoded in the kernel - the default is much higher)

semmsl = 250 (To verify, execute: cat /proc/sys/kernel/sem | awk '{print $1}')
semmns = 32000 (To verify, execute: cat /proc/sys/kernel/sem | awk '{print $2}')
semopm = 100 (To verify, execute: cat /proc/sys/kernel/sem | awk '{print $3}')
semmni = 128 (To verify, execute: cat /proc/sys/kernel/sem | awk '{print $4}')

file-max = 65536 (To verify, execute: cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max)

ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
(To verify, execute: cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range)

NOTE: Do not change the value of any kernel parameter on a system where it is already higher than listed as minimum requirement.

Oracle also recommends to set the local port range ip_local_port_range for outgoing messages to "1024 65000" which is needed for high-usage systems. This kernel parameter defines the local port range for TCP and UDP traffic to choose from.
I added the following lines to the /etc/sysctl.conf file which is used during the boot process:

kernel.sem=250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range=1024 65000

Adding these lines to the /etc/sysctl.conf file will cause the system to change these kernel parameters after each boot using the /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script which is invoked by /etc/inittab. But in order that these new added lines or settings in /etc/sysctl.conf become effective immediately, execute the following command:

su - root
sysctl -p

Sizing Disk Space for Oracle10g

Oracle says that about 2.5 GB of disk space should be reserved for the Oracle software on Linux. When I did an Oracle 10g Release 1 ( "General Purpose Database" installation (not including any software from the Oracle Database 10g Companion CD), the Oracle software used about 1.3 GB of disk space, and the preconfigured "General Purpose Database" (datafiles, etc.) used about 710 MB of disk space.
$ du -m -s /u01
1963    /u01
$ du -m -s /u01/app/oracle/oradata
720     /u01/app/oracle/oradata
If you also install additional software from the Oracle Database 10g Companion CD, then add at least 1 GB of free disk space. So if you install Oracle10g Enterprise Edition and additional software from the Oracle Database 10g Companion CD, then you need about 2.5 GB of disk for the Oracle software. And if you also want to add a preconfigured database on the same filesystem, make sure to add another 1 GB of disk space. NOTE: If you don't put Oracle10g on a separate filesystems, then make sure the root filesystem "/" has enough disk space. You can check the free space of the root filesystem with the following command:
df -h /

Using Automatic Storage Management (ASM)

For more information on installing and configuring ASM, see Installing and Configuring Automatic Storage Management (ASM) and Disks. And for information on how to make use of ASM disk groups when running OUI, see Installing Oracle Database 10g with Real Application Cluster (RAC).

Creating Oracle User Accounts

To create the oracle account and groups, execute the following commands:
su - root
groupadd dba          # group of users to be granted SYSDBA system privilege
groupadd oinstall     # group owner of Oracle files
useradd -c "Oracle software owner" -g oinstall -G dba oracle
passwd oracle
For more information on the "oinstall" group account, see When to use "OINSTALL" group during install of oracle.

Setting Shell Limits for the Oracle User

Most shells like Bash provide control over various resources like the maximum allowable number of open file descriptors or the maximum number of processes available to a user. For more information on ulimit for the Bash shell, see man bash and search for ulimit. If you just install a small test database, then you might be ok with the current settings (note that the limits very often vary). But for (larger) production databases, you should increase the following shell limits to the following values recommended by Oracle:
nofile = 65536     (To verify, execute: ulimit -n)
nproc  = 16384     (To verify, execute: ulimit -u)
The nofile option denotes the maximum number of open file descriptors, and nproc denotes the maximum number of processes available to a single user. To see all shell limits, execute:
ulimit -a
The following procedures/links show how to increase these parameters for the oracle user account: For more information on nofile and how to increase the limit, see Setting Limits for the Maximum Number of Open File Descriptors for the Oracle User. Even though this procedure was written for Oracle9i on RHAS 2.1, it also applies to Oracle10g on RHEL AS 2.1, RHEL AS 3, and other versions. For more information on nproc and how to increase the limit, see Setting Limits for the Maximum Number of Processes for the Oracle User. Even though this procedure was written for Oracle9i on RHAS 2.1, it also applies to Oracle10g on RHEL AS 2.1, RHEL AS 3, and other versions.

Creating Oracle Directories

For Oracle10g you only need to create the directory for $ORACLE_BASE:
su - root
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
chown oracle.oinstall /u01/app/oracle
But if you want to comply with Oracle's Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA), then you don't want to place the database files in the /u01 directory but in another directory/filesystem/disk like /u02. This is not a requirement but if you want to comply with OFA, then you might want to create the following directories as well:
su - root
mkdir -p /u02/oradata/orcl
chown oracle.oinstall /u02/oradata/orcl
In this example, "orcl" stands for the name of the database which will also be the name of the instance. This is typically the case for single instance databases. Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) for 10g R1 ( The OFA standard is a guideline created by Oracle to ensure reliable Oracle installations. For Oracle 10g Database, the OFA recommended Oracle home path has changed. The home path for the first 10g (10.1.0) database installation on a system would be:
If you would install a second Oracle 10g Database 10g (10.1.0) on the same system, the Oracle home directory would be as follows:
If the Oracle10g software is not owned by the user oracle but by the user "oraowner", then the path of the Oracle home directory would be:
The standard directory name for Oracle10g is "app":
Oracle recommends to use mount points such as /u01, /u02, etc. which complies with the OFA guidelines. But others can be used, for example:
The subtree for database files not stored in ASM disk groups should be named as follows:
The mount point /u01 should be used for the Oracle software only. /u02, /u03, /u04 etc. should be used for the database files. The db_name stands for the DB_NAME initialization parameter which is typically the same as the SID name for single instance databases.

Setting Oracle Environments

Since the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) "runInstaller" is run from the oracle account, some environment variables must be configured for this account before OUI is started. Execute the following commands for the Bash shell which is the default shell on Red Hat Linux (to verify your shell run: echo $SHELL):
su - oracle
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export ORACLE_SID=orcl
NOTE: If ORACLE_BASE is used, then Oracle recommends that you don't set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable but that you choose the default path suggested by the OUI. You can set and use ORACLE_HOME after you finished running OUI. Also, the environment variables ORACLE_HOME and TNS_ADMIN should not be set. If you've already set these environment variables, you can unset them by running the following commands:
To have these environment variables set automatically each time you login as oracle, you can add these environment variables to the ~oracle/.bash_profile file which is the user startup file for the Bash shell on Red Hat Linux. To do this you could simply copy/paste the following commands to make these settings permanent for your oracle's Bash shell:
su - oracle
cat >> ~oracle/.bash_profile << EOF
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
export ORACLE_SID=orcl

Installing Oracle10g

Installing Oracle10g on a Remote Linux Server If you don't install Oracle on your local system but on a remote server, then you need to relink X to your local desktop. The easiest way to do this is to use the "X11 forwarding" feature of ssh. This means that you don't have to run xhost and set the DISPLAY environment variable. Here is an example how to make use of the "X11 forward" feature of ssh. Simply run the following command from your local desktop:
$ ssh -X oracle@oracle_remote_server_name
Now when you try to run any GUI tool on the remote server, it will automatically be relinked to your local desktop. If this is not working, verify that the ForwardX11 setting is not set to "no" in /etc/ssh/ssh_config on the remote server:
su - root
# grep ForwardX11 /etc/ssh/ssh_config | grep -v "^#"
        ForwardX11 yes
If you are using telnet, however, you will have to set DISPLAY manually, see article Starting runInstaller for more information.

Starting Oracle Universal Installer
Insert the Oracle CD that contains the image of the downloaded file ship.db.lnx32.cpio, or change to the directory that contains the image directory Disk1.
If you install Oracle10g from a CD, mount the CD by running the following commands in another terminal:

su - root
mount /media/cdrom

Before you execute runInstaller, make sure the Oracle environment variables are set, see Setting Oracle Environments. You can verify the settings by running the set command:

su - oracle
oracle$ set

To execute runInstaller from the mounted CD, run the following command as the oracle user:

oracle$ /media/cdrom/runInstaller

Using Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)
The following example shows how to install x86 Oracle 10g Release 1 Database Software and a "General Purpose" database:
(Note, the screens and questions will look different if you install 10g R2 or 64-bit 10g R1 database)

- Welcome Screen:
        - Basic Installation:       Checked it which is the default
        - Oracle Home Location:     Use default: /u01/app/oracle/product/10.1.0/db_1
        - Installation Type:        I used the default: Enterprise Edition
        - UNIX DBA Group:           Use default: dba
        - Create Starter Databases: I checked it for this example which is the default
        - Global Database Name:     orcl
        - Database password:        password for SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP
        - Advanced Installation:    For this article I did not check it
Click Next

- Specify Inventory directory and credentials:
        - Full path of the inventory directory: Use default: /u01/app/oracle/oraInventory
        - Specify Operating System group name:  Use default: oinstall
Click Next

- A window pops up to run the script:
        Run the script in another terminal:
            su - root
            # /u01/app/oracle/oraInventory/
            Creating the Oracle inventory pointer file (/etc/oraInst.loc)
            Changing groupname of /u01/app/oracle/oraInventory to oinstall.
        Click Continue

- Product-specific Prerequisite Checks:
        Verify that all checks have been passed.
        Make sure that the status of each Check is set to "Succeeded".
        On RHEL AS 4 ignore the warnings for binutils, gcc, and openmotif and proceed.
        Note that the "Retry" button doesn't work after you fixed one of the failed checks.
Click Next

- Select Database Configuration:
        I selected "General Purpose".
Click Next

- Specify Database Configuration Options:
       - Global Database Name: I used "orcl".
       - SID: I used "orcl".
Click Next

- Select Database Management Option:
       I selected "Use Database Control for Database Management".
Click Next

- Specify Database File Storage Option: I selected "File System".
       - File System     - Specify Database file location: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/
                           If you want to comply with OFA, you should another  mount point
                           than '/u01', e.g. /u02/oradata.
Click Next

- Specify Backup and Recovery Options:
         For my test installation I selected "Do no enable Automated Backups".
Click Next

- Specify Database Schema Passwords:
        Make sure that the password(s) don't start with a digit number! Otherwise you
        will later get error message(s) like "ORA-00988 missing or invalid password".
Click Next

- Summary:  Click Install
        If Enterprise manager configuration fails due to port allocation problems,
        check out Oracle10g/Linux Errors and Problems.

        When a window pops up to run the script, execute the script
        in another terminal as root:

        su - root
        # /u01/app/oracle/product/10.1.0/db_1/
        Running Oracle10 script...
        following environment variables are set as:
        ORACLE_OWNER= oracle
        ORACLE_HOME=  /u01/app/oracle/product/10.1.0/db_1

        Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]:
                 Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin ...
                 Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin ...
                 Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin ...

                 Creating /etc/oratab file...
                 Adding entry to /etc/oratab file...
                 Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by
                 Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created
                 Finished running generic part of script.
                 Now product-specific root actions will be performed.
                 /var/opt/oracle does not exist. Creating it now.
                 /etc/oracle does not exist. Creating it now.
                 Successfully accumulated necessary OCR keys.
                 Creating OCR keys for user 'root', privgrp 'root'..
                 Operation successful.
                 Oracle Cluster Registry for cluster has been initialized

                 Adding to inittab
                 Checking the status of Oracle init process...
                 Expecting the CRS daemons to be up within 600 seconds.
                 CSS is active on these nodes.
                 CSS is active on all nodes.
                 Oracle CSS service is installed and running under init(1M)
         Click OK

 - End of Installation:  Click Exit

Updates after Running Oracle Universal Installer
After Oracle10g has been installed, make sure that ORACLE_HOME, PATH, and LD_LIBRARY_PATH are set for the oracle account.
Note that the path for ORACLE_HOME might be different on your system!
Also note that LD_LIBRARY_PATH is needed for some Oracle binaries such as sysresv!

For 10g R2 ( I added the following lines to the ~oracle/.bash_profile file:

        export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1
        export PATH=$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin
        export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib

After that run the following command to set all environment variables in ~oracle/.bash_profile:

        $ . ~oracle/.bash_profile

This commmand will add the environment variables to the ~oracle/.profile and source in the file for the current shell by executing ". ~oracle/.bash_profile".

Oracle Post-installation Tasks

Startup and Shutdown of the Oracle10g Database To startup the database:
oracle$ sqlplus /nolog
SQL> connect / as sysdba
SQL> startup
To shutdown the database:
oracle$ sqlplus /nolog
SQL> connect / as sysdba
SQL> shutdown
The slash connects you to the schema owned by SYS. In the above example you will be connected to the schema owned by SYS with the privilege SYSDBA. SYSDBA gives you the following privileges: - sysoper privileges WITH ADMIN OPTION - create database - recover database until Shutdown of other Oracle 10g Background Processes If you installed a preconfigured database using OUI, then several Oracle background processes are now running on your server. Execute the following command to see the background processes:
ps -ef
To shutdown the Oracle background processes after an Oracle Database 10g installation, you can execute the following commands:
  • iSQL*Plus
      To stop iSQL*Plus, run:
      su - oracle
      isqlplusctl stop
  • Database Management Processes
      During the installation of Oracle 10g, OUI offered two Database Management Options: If you selected "Database Control for Database Management", then the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control (Database Control) can be shutdown with the following command which stops both the agent and the Oracle Containers for Java (OC4J) management service:
      su - oracle
      emctl stop dbconsole
      If you selected "Grid Control for Database Management" which is used for full "Grid Control" installations, then the Oracle Management Agent (standalone agent) for the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control (Grid Control) can be stopped with the following command:
      su - oracle
      emctl stop agent
  • Oracle Net Listener
      To stop the listener, run:
      su - oracle
      lsnrctl stop
  • Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS)
      To shutdown Oracle CSS daemon, run:
      su - root
      /etc/rc.d/init.d/init.cssd stop

    Tips and Hints for Oracle10g on Linux

  • To reinstall Oracle10g after a failed installation attempt, you might want to execute the following commands.
      Make sure you first used the De-installation option in OUI.
      su - root

      export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.1.0/db_1
      . $ORACLE_HOME/bin/localconfig delete # stops the Oracle CSS daemon and deletes configuration

      rm -rf /u01/app/oracle/*

      rm -f /etc/oraInst.loc /etc/oratab
      rm -rf /etc/oracle
      rm -f /etc/inittab.cssd
      rm -f /usr/local/bin/coraenv /usr/local/bin/dbhome /usr/local/bin/oraenv

      Make also sure to unset and uncomment ORACLE_HOME from ~oracle/.bash_profile.

    Well that's about it. Have a great time working on it.